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Glossary of Terms


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  
ActiveX Controls ActiveX controls are components that add dynamic and interactive features to Web pages. With ActiveX tools, multimedia effects, animation, a nd functional applications can be added to Web sites.
Address Bar Spoofing Alteration of a browser’s address bar to display a legitimate address. This is done by running a script that removes the browser’s address bar and replaces it with a fake one, which is made up of text or images.
Adware The term adware is short for "advertising-supported software." It refers to any piece of software or application that displays advertisements, usually through pop-up or pop-under windows. Adware are classified under grayware. As such, they are not inherently malicious but invasive and annoying. They often arrive bundled with malware. They can connect to malicious websites and work with spyware to deliver targeted ads. Many free apps are adware, since ad revenue can be a source of profit for developers. Cybercriminals go the extra step to disguise adware apps as normal apps so people will download it and they can generate profit. The TOUCHNET adware app has even shown ads as notifications without revealing itself to prevent removal. Adware routines can weaken network connection and system performance. Such will be the result as the adware business model continues and more ads get pushed on user systems.
Aliases Different vendors often have their own approaches towards malware detection, which may result in different naming conventions. The aliases field in the Virus Encyclopedia, Spyware/Grayware and Vulnerabilities pages indicates other names used to refer to the same threat.
App store App stores are sites where users browse, download, and buy computing programs or "apps", mostly for mobile devices. Though Apple claims copyright to the phrase "App Store," many still refer to it when discussing apps across operating systems and brands. Device manufacturers and OS developers have native app stores built into their devices. These include Google Play, Blackberry App World, Samsung Apps, and iOS App Store. Third party app stores also exist for users who seek specific apps not available on native app stores. GetJar, MobiHand, and Handango belong to this category. The mobile app market offer apps free, on trial, or for a fee. Cybercriminals leverage this by tricking users to download bogus apps that steal credential data off mobile devices.
Application/Apps Applications are software programs developed for end-users to accomplish specific computing tasks. Apps, on the other hand, mostly refer to programs developed for mobile devices. Both depend on the platform and operating system they were designed for. Most applications are used to process documents and are bundled with other applications to form a suite, just like Microsoft Office. This is also the same for mobile apps. Both applications and apps are popular for their various uses in entertainment, novelty, education, reference, and others. However, mobile apps are patronized more for entertainment and communication purposes. Applications are bought with the operating system or individually from physical stores or websites. Apps are usually downloaded from mobile app stores.
APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) Advanced persistent threats (APTs) refer to a category of threats that pertain to computer intrusions by threat actors that aggressively pursue and compromise chosen targets. APTs are often conducted in campaigns—a series of failed and successful attempts over time to get deeper and deeper into a target’s network—and are thus not isolated incidents. In addition, while malware are typically used as
Arrival method This phrase pertains to the manner by which malware are able to infect computer systems. These methods include malware as a result of Internet downloads, other malware, opening email attachments, and using removable drives. This phrase is interchangeably used with "infection vector" when describing malware routines.
Attachment Attachments are files embedded within online communication channels such as emails, instant messages, or social networks. File attachments can come in any form, such as images, documents, or programs. A paper clip image often symbolize the presence of attachments in messages. Since attachments come in many forms, threat actors often use this feature to drop malware on user system. One way to fool users to download malicious files is by renaming attachments in a way that escapes suspicion.
Autorun The AutoRun technology is a Windows operating system feature Microsoft introduced in Windows 95. It allows Windows Explorer to automatically launch programs from inserted storage drives and other media. Its command is rooted into the applications themselves and can't be edited by users, however, they can choose to go through with it or not using another Windows technology, AutoPlay. The autorun.inf text file, used for both the AutoRun and AutoPlay features, is placed in the root directory of a volume or storage drive to launch specific applications, such as installation files. Cybercriminals use this technology to get into user systems using worm type malware. AutoRun malware is the most prevalent in the Asia Pacific. It can infect USBs, hard drives, flash drives, and mapped drives; and is hard to remove. Malware categorized as AutoRun include the following: WORM_SOHANAD, WORM_SILLY, PE_SALITY, WORM_VB, and WORM_DOWNAD (Conficker).
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